Stack the #1 nootropic with the top multivitamin for more brainpower in 2020.

To enhance cognition, you need to have cognition in the first place. This is something we often forget.

And so, stressed out and sleep deprived and malnourished, what we often think of as “enhanced cognition” when we take our nootropics is perhaps more along the lines of “returning to a minimally effective standard of cognitive performance.”

It feels good to not feel bad. But simply “not feeling bad” isn’t the same as feeling good.

Let me explain.

While we’re chronically operating below our nutritional baseline (as many of us are) nootropics may help us not feel as bad as we’d otherwise feel without nootropics.

However, in a nutrient-deficient state, nootropics will be much less effective than they could be. 

This is where multivitamins come into play.

By restoring our micronutrient levels to a healthy baseline, an effective multivitamin supplement may provide a sturdy enough foundation for our nootropics...

...to not only have us feeling good, but having us operating on a maximally effective standard of cognitive performance.

Even better, the Best Multivitamin Supplement of 2020 may improve much more than cognitive performance. And, lucky you, that’s exactly what we’re covering in this article.

The Beginner’s Guide on Multivitamins

Taking a multivitamin is easy.

Seems like everyone and their dog is on a multivitamin these days, as many of us are waking up to the immense benefits of taking an effective multivitamin supplement.

The only problem is: not all multivitamin supplements are effective.

Below, we’ll get into what does and doesn’t make a multivitamin effective. However, before diving into the nitty gritty of those details, let’s start with the basics.

What’s in a Multivitamin?

Ideally, a multivitamin should only have vitamins and minerals—and perhaps maybe a few essential vitamin-like compounds that, though not technically vitamins, function as key vitamins.

With that in mind, here are the proper definitions of “vitamin” and “mineral”:

  • Vitamins are organic compounds that, despite being essential to healthy growth and development, are not synthesized by the body (for the most part).
  • Minerals are inorganic substances that, like vitamins, are essential to sustaining healthy bodily functions and, yet, are not synthesized by the body.

Though we tend to use the word “organic” to mean “naturally processed foods and goods,” the chemistry definition of “organic” means “contains carbon.” So, vitamins, as organic compounds, contain carbon, whereas minerals, as inorganic substances, do not have the carbon element.

In fact, minerals are themselves elements, each with their own spot on the Periodic Table of Elements.

Likewise, the term “essential” here means that our bodies can’t synthesize these vitamins and minerals (for the most part).

And, thus, we can only obtain these life-essential substances via our diet.

Here's the issue, though...

The Problem with our Diet

The modern diet has a problem with nutrients.

Or, rather, it has a problem without nutrients, and so do we when what we eat fails to deliver enough nutrients to keep us healthily jiving and thriving along.

With data demonstrating a significant decline in our food’s nutrient content, even in our vegetables, across the second half of the 20th century,[1] many health and fitness enthusiasts are anxiously wondering what’s the deal with our diets?

So, what is the deal here?

Here’s the deal: though increasing food quantity, modern manufacturing processes and cooking techniques are sapping the micronutrients right out of our foods.

What today’s food processing technologies and strategies achieve in terms of yielding massive food quantities comes at the cost of a massive decline in food quality. Our food supply is wide as an ocean, yet nutritionally deep as a puddle.

As a result, many of our highly processed foods, the ones we typically buy at the grocery store, lack the proper micronutrient levels our bodies need.

With many popular diet fads proving themselves to be nutrient-deficient,[2] we’d ideally stick to predominantly raw foods and meals to restore our nutrient intake.

However, to do this yourself requires too much time and effort and specialized skill, whereas buying raw foods is often too expensive and, again, time-consuming. (Plus, there’s little guarantee that foods sold as “raw” or “organic” truly are what they say they are.)

With the rise of nutrient-deficient foods comes the rise of nutrient-dense dietary supplements, including the multivitamin supplement.

For the average busybody, and especially the above average busybody, multivitamin supplements alleviate the worries around health and nutrition by helping fill the nutritional gaps in our diets.

But not any ol’ multivitamin will do the trick.

To replenish whole-food levels of vitamins and minerals, you’ll need a whole-food multivitamin stack. None of those synthetic chemicals masquerading as micronutrients.

What’s the Difference: Whole-Food vs. Synthetic Multivitamins?

Despite the whole cyberpunk ethos of the neurohacker lifestyler, synthetic or refined foods are not at the top of the neurohacker’s list...

...Long gone are the days of science fiction-y “Meal in a Pill!” daydreams.

Nootropic enthusiasts long for the real thing, and the same applies for their multivitamin supplements.

When it comes to choosing between natural vs. synthetic multivitamins, the choice is easy: always go natural when it comes to vitamins and minerals.

Whole-food multivitamins that supply vitamins and minerals either isolated from raw, natural food sources or created in yeast-based cultures fulfil the body's nutrient requirements.

On the other hand...

Lab-synthesized chemicals that are merely cheap imitations of the real thing aren’t only foreign to the body but ineffective at properly absorbing and acting upon their intended bio-pathways.

A few examples of natural, superior vitamin forms to look for include:

  • Vitamin B6: pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P), not pyridoxine HCl;
  • Vitamin B9: folate, not folic acid;
  • Vitamin B12: methylcobalamin, not cyanocobalamin;
  • Vitamin C: ascorbate, not ascorbic acid;
  • Vitamin K: phylloquinone, not K3 or menadione or phytonadione.

A quick trick to help identity an ineffective multivitamin stack:

Memorize the B-vitamin forms and, when looking at the Supplement Facts of a multivitamin supplement, check to see whether its B12 is supplied as methylcobalamin (superior) or cyanocobalamin (inferior)—likewise for B6 and B9.

If they’re using inferior B-vitamin forms, odds are you’re looking at a cheap, synthetic multivitamin stack.

A wooden spoon holding a variety of multivitamin pills among a backdrop of fruits

How Multivitamins Benefit Brainpower

From immunity to bone health, hormones to neurotransmitters, the vitamins and minerals supplied by a comprehensive multivitamin covers virtually all brain and body bio-pathways.

While nailing the exact benefits of multivitamins is difficult, given the range of theoretical effects a stack of vitamins and minerals provides, clinical research has suggested multivitamins may benefit cognition by:

Enhancing immediate free recall memory

A meta-analysis from 2012 performed a systematic review of multiple randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of multivitamin supplements in improving cognitive performance.

Overall, ten trials were included in the review, with the researchers finding that “multivitamins were effective in improving immediate free recall memory,” which is basically our ability to memorize, say, a list of items and recite that list of items in any order (hence “free” recall).3

Improving verbal memory (antioxidant multivitamins)

To determine the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on cognitive performance, researchers studied cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study six years after the end of the SU.VI.MAX trial.

Lasting from 1994 to 2002, the SU.VI.MAX study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to subjected participants to either a daily combo of Vitamin C, β-carotene, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Zinc or placebo. Throughout 2007 to 2009, the cognitive performance of these participants was assessed.

The results showed that the subjects receiving antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores as compared to placebo. As such, the researchers concluded that the “study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions.”[4-5]

Modulate whole-body energy metabolism and cerebral blood-flow

Both brain energy metabolism and cerebral circulation depend upon micronutrient status. With that in mind, one randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the metabolic and circulatory effects of taking a multivitamin supplement among a sample of 97 healthy females.

The study’s results demonstrated acute and chronic micronutrient supplementation to be effective at modulating metabolic parameters and cerebral circulation during cognitive task performance.

Overall, the study’s findings suggest that "both brain function and metabolism are amenable to micronutrient supplementation, even in adults who are assumed to have nutritional status typical of the population."[6]

What to Look for in a Multivitamin Supplement

Many multivitamin supplements try to stand out from the competition by creating hybrid-style formulas.

Such as, ones that include not only all the essential vitamins and minerals. But also more specific health and performance ingredients, such as testosterone boosters, fat burners, caffeine, and so on.

With exception to prenatal multivitamin supplements, specialized or hybrid-style multivitamins are largely filled with unnecessary ingredient add-ons.

The best way to boost testosterone with a multivitamin is to stack a testosterone boosting supplement with a multivitamin. Not take a supposedly “testosterone boosting multivitamin.”

Likewise, the best way to boost brainpower with a multivitamin is to stack a nootropic supplement with a multivitamin. And a multivitamin that sticks to the essentials, meaning quite literally the essential vitamins and minerals.

Here are the vitamins and minerals, including their associative bio-pathways, to look for in an effective multivitamin stack...

Vitamins and Minerals in an Effective Multivitamin:

  • Vitamin A: vision, skincare, immunity, tissue repair, bone.
  • Vitamin C: cardio health, immunity, skincare, joint, bone, gum.
  • Vitamin D3: bone, testosterone, immunity, cell function, protein.
  • Vitamin E: cardio health, hair, skincare, nails, tissue repair.
  • Vitamin K1+K2: bone, testosterone, cardio health, connective tissue.
  • Vitamin B1: nervous system, energy metabolism.
  • Vitamin B2: red blood cell growth and development, energy metabolism.
  • Vitamin B3: circulation, energy metabolism, nervous system, skincare.
  • Vitamin B5: energy metabolism, hormone synthesis, cardio health.
  • Vitamin B6: energy metabolism, neurochemical synthesis, cardio health.
  • Vitamin B7: hair, skincare, nails, energy metabolism, nervous system.
  • Vitamin B9: new cell formation and development, DNA synthesis.
  • Vitamin B12: energy metabolism, cardio health, nervous system.
  • Calcium: bone, joint, cardio health, muscles, nervous system.
  • Iron: blood cell formation, oxygen utilization, neurochemical synthesis.
  • Iodine: thyroid health and function, energy metabolism.
  • Magnesium: energy metabolism, testosterone, muscle relaxation, bone.
  • Zinc: testosterone, immunity, vision, nervous system, cell growth.
  • Selenium: thyroid health and function, immunity.
  • Copper: energy metabolism, nervous system, blood cell formation, immunity.
  • Manganese: enzyme cofactor, energy metabolism, blood sugar, bone.
  • Chromium: energy metabolism, weight management, blood sugar.
  • Molybdenum: enzyme function, energy metabolism.
  • Strontium: bone, joints.
  • Inositol: nervous system, skincare, cognition, emotional stability.
  • Vanadium: cardio health, blood sugar, bone, muscle, enzyme function, growth factor.
  • Boron: testosterone, bone, joint, connective tissue.
Take note that dosages may vary, depending on whether you’re looking at a men’s multivitamin or a women’s multivitamin.

While the differences between the two multivitamin types usually aren’t all that drastic, they do tend to address the differences in the nutritional priorities of the male vs. female body. This is especially true in the case of prenatal multivitamin supplements.

Mind Lab Pro® Nootropics with a Multivitamin

2 bottles of Performance Lab Whole-Food Multivitamin next to a bottle of Mind Lab Pro

Unlike, say, the elderly brain support supplements that have dominated the supplement market for the past however many decades, nootropic supplements actually enhance cognitive performance for both the young and old alike.

However, though many of these nootropics possess restorative properties, for them to actually boost health and fitness, there needs to be a solid health and fitness foundation for them to build upon.

Multivitamin supplements provide a sturdy foundation for nootropics to build upon.

And, as such, stacking the following Mind Lab Pro® nootropics with a multivitamin stack may further improve their brain boosting results:

L-Tyrosine

Stress relieving amino acid that converts to catecholamine neurotransmitters with the help of B-vitamins.

When the brain is tired and/or stressed out, the brain burns through L-tyrosine to stay afloat. Essentially, L-tyrosine is an amino acid that converts to catecholamines, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, under times of high stress and activity.[7] And when L-tyrosine burns out, so does the brain, leading to problems with attention, concentration, mood, and motivation.

As a standalone nootropic, L-tyrosine is an incredibly effect cognitive enhancer, one that’s especially great as a morning pick-me-up to add to your coffee. However, stacking L-tyrosine with a multivitamin, namely a B-vitamin complex, isn’t a bad idea, considering that vitamin B6 acts as co-factors in the catecholaminergic and serotonergic conversion processes.[8]

More on Mind Lab Pro® L-Tyrosine here.

Citicoline (CDP Choline)

One-part choline and one-part cytidine, citicoline is a cognitive enhancing supercharger for brain energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity.

Often lumped with vitamins and minerals, choline is a basic building block compound required for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a brain cell membrane component, and acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter strongly associated with memory, learning, and high-order cognitive processes.

As a raw choline donor, Citicoline (CDP Choline) is a smart nootropic to take with multivitamins, if your goal is to optimize your neurotransmitter levels and enhance your memory performance with micronutrients. Additionally, citicoline’s cytidine addition, which converts to the nootropic uridine once absorbed, may help promote synaptic plasticity and brain energy metabolism.[9]

More on Mind Lab Pro® Citicoline here.

Phosphatidylserine (PS)

As a key constituent of the brain cell membrane’s phospholipid membrane, PS is an integral component of neuron formation and development.

Similar to vitamins and minerals, as well as citicoline’s choline, Phosphatidylserine works as a building block unit for one of the most important aspects of brain health: the cell membrane.

Remember the phospholipid bilayer of your grade-school biology days? PS is one of the phospholipids that makes up the membranous bilayer. In the brain, PS plays at least two important roles related to healthy brain growth and function: (1) PS keeps neuronal membranes fluid and flexible, and (2) PS regenerates, repairs, and builds new neuronal connections, including those involved in increased synaptic plasticity.[10]

More on Mind Lab Pro® Phosphatidylserine here.

Best Multivitamin Supplement to Buy in 2020

Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi supplies whole-food, whole-body, foundational nutrient support with its innovative NutriGenesis®-enhanced vitamins and minerals.

2 bottles of Performance Lab Whole-Food Multi

To Buy Whole-Food Multi, Visit: www.performancelab.com 

If the best way to achieve adequate nutrient levels is through a whole-food diet, then the best multivitamin supplement must deliver food-identical vitamins and minerals that register in the body as actual-factual dietary micronutrients.

None of that synthetic stuff.

Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi leaves the cheap, synthetic vitamins and minerals to the cheap, synthetic multivitamin supplements. Instead, delivering a healthy, probiotic-cultured admixture of nutrients via clean, probiotic-infused Plantcaps® capsules.

Inside and out, Whole-Food Multi is the real deal multivitamin stack.

Given that weak absorption is such a inhibiting factor with most multivitamin supplements, Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi’s commitment to delivering the best micronutrients in bio-enhanced, easy-to-absorb forms is exactly what we’re looking for. 

It's the best multivitamin for more brainpower in 2020.

2 bottles of Performance Lab Whole-Food Multi

To Buy Whole-Food Multi, Visit: www.performancelab.com 

However, to better understand what makes this multivitamin stack better than the rest, we’ll need to take a closer look at its formula—or, rather, formulas.

Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi Ingredients

  • The Supplement Facts for Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi for Men: 

Supplement facts label for Performance Lab Whole-Food Multi for Men

  • The Supplement Facts for Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi for Women:

Supplement Facts Label for Performance Lab Whole-Food Multi for Women

Many whole-food supplements intentionally confuse their customers. 

How?

By hiding their ingredients beneath catch-all proprietary blends on their labels and vaguely listing the natural food source of their nutrients, failing to offer much detail on micronutrient dosage or forms.

On the other hand, Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi transparently shows its nature-identical nutrients and dosages, hiding nothing from the customer.

And what’s particularly great about Whole-Food Multi’s formulas isn’t just how they comprehensively deliver all the necessary vitamins and minerals at a superior, absorbable quality. But Whole-Food Multi also abides by one of the cleanest, greenest standards on the supplement market:

All ingredients are eco-friendly, vegan-friendly, non-GMO, non-irradiated, gluten-free, synthetic-free, allergen free artificial free preservative free and free from banned substances.
This is a healthy multivitamin stack that truly qualifies as health supplement.

And this applies to both the “For Men” and “For Women” variations of this formula.

Granted, the differences between the “For Men” and “For Women” formulas aren’t gigantic, but they’re worth detailing here:

  • Vitamin B1: 8mg (For Men), 4mg (For Women)
  • Vitamin B9: 400mcg (For Men), 800mcg (For Women)
  • Calcium: 18mg (For Men), 21mg (For Women)
  • Iron: 8mg (For Women Only)
  • Magnesium: 17mg (For Men), 21mg (For Women)
  • Zinc:5mg (For Men), 10mg (For Women)
  • Boron: 4mg (For Men), 1mg (For Women)

Except for these ingredient and dosage changes, everything between these formulas are the same: same high-quality ingredients, same Plantcaps® capsules, same price.

To learn more about Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi, click here.

Who takes Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi?

Everyone needs nutrients, yet many of us fail to reach our daily requirements for essential nutrient intake.

Whether or not you’re sure you’re consuming sufficient daily nutrients, Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi offers enough of everything to help restore your vitamin and mineral levels.

Also, by supplying a straightforward multivitamin stack with zero “hybrid” formula gimmicks, this supplement works for everyone of all diets and lifestyles.

How to take Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi

Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi is safe for daily, long-term use. The official directions listed for this multivitamin suggest that you:

Take 4-6 Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi capsules daily. For best results take 2-3 capsules in the morning and 2-3 capsules in the evening, with or without food. For those seeking additional nutritional reinforcement, up to six Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi capsules daily may be taken.

Where to buy Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi

To buy either formula version of Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi, visit here.

All Performance Lab® products sell exclusively through www.performancelab.com, a highly informative site that functions both as a storefront and info booth for all things related to health, fitness, and performance.

Conclusion

Mind Lab Pro® + Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi combine a powerful stack of brain boosting nootropics with the best multivitamin for brainpower in 2020.

With a multivitamin stack to cover all your micronutrients, what other supplements do you need?

Is food even a necessity when you have a multivitamin??

Of course it is.

Likewise, the upside of taking an effective multivitamin isn’t only to improve your nutrient levels but also to enhance the results of your other health and fitness supplements.

  • If Mind Lab Pro® boosts cognitive performance by bolstering the bio-pathways underlying cognition, Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi ensures that those bio-pathways are even working in the first place.

Though many multivitamin supplements share the same vitamins and minerals, not all multivitamins are the same. Most differ in terms of ingredient forms and quality, as well as vegan vs. non-vegan status.

However, all multivitamins are different from Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi, which outperforms all other micronutrient stacks by every measure.

By supplying a solid multivitamin foundation, Whole-Food Multi sets the stage for Mind Lab Pro® to work even better. (Assuming that’s even possible.)

To get the best deal on Mind Lab Pro®, click here.

To get the best deal on Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi, click here.

BONUS – Ultimate Fitness Foundation Stack

Though not necessarily “multivitamin” stacks, the following nutrient supplement stacks may improve overall health and fitness beyond the brainpower boosts provided Mind Lab Pro® and Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi.

To create the Ultimate Fitness Foundation Stack, consider adding these products to your daily supplement stack:

Performance Lab® Vision

Ultramodern vision support for eye health and visual acuity, enhancing focus speed, motion detection, night vision, and other sight performance benefits.

Ingredients: European Freeze-Dried Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) (fruit), European Blackcurrant Extract (fruit) (25% anthocyanins and typically providing 2.2% C3G), European Bilberry Extract (Vaccinium myrtillus) (fruit) (25% antocyanosides), FloraGLO® Lutein (marigold flower extract), FloraGLO® Zeaxanthin (marigold flower extract), Astaxanthin (as Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract), Saffron (Crocus sativus) (stigma) (0.3% safranal)

  • Stacked with research-backed botanical nutrients, Performance Lab® Vision does for the eyes what Performance Lab® Whole-Food Multi does for the brain and body: nourish overall health and performance. Though many of us taken vision for granted, our eyes require special nutrient nourishment like much of the body, and Performance Lab® Vision supplies that nourishment in the form of macula-defending antioxidants and herbal extracts that promote better oxygen and nutrient delivery to the eyes, as well as increase natural defenses against retina-damaging “blue” light, the type of light emitted from electronic screens.

A bottle of Performance Lab Vision

To get the best deal on Performance Lab® Vision, click here.

Performance Lab® Flex

Daily joint-supporting nutrients to soothe and protect achy connective tissues against the wear-and-tear that comes with an active lifestyle.

Ingredients: CurcuWIN® Turmeric (Curcuma longa) (root) (20% Curcuminoids), AprèsFlex® Boswellia serrata (gum resin) (20% 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid [AKBA]), Glucosamine Sulfate 2KCL (from corn), Mythocondro® (Chondroitin Sulfate [vegan]), OptiMSM® (Methylsulfonylmethane [MSM]), NutriGenesis® Strontium+

  • Performance Lab® Flex is a flexibility-enhancing health supplement that uses only all-natural compounds and extracts to help with joint lubrication, strength, and structure. Taken daily, Performance Lab® Flex, like Whole-Food Multi, offers foundational building block support for long-term health and fitness enhancement. For those living an active lifestyle, Flex is a key nutrient stack that assists with the repair and recovery aspects of fitness.

A bottle of Performance Lab Flex

To get the best deal on Performance Lab® Flex, click here.

Performance Lab® Prebiotic

Daily microflora support for optimal metabolic, digestive, and immune performance that supports cognitive wellbeing via the gut-brain axis.

Ingredients: Orafti® Synergy1 (Inulin-FOS) (FructoOligoSaccharides from Chicory Root [Cichorium intybus])

  • Unlike probiotic supplements, which supply living bacteria, Performance Lab® Prebiotic is a dietary supplement that supplies prebiotics, which are gut healthy fibrous foods that feed the bacteria already in your gut. Not all probiotic strains work for everyone. However, prebiotics feed all bacterial types of gut biota. Taken daily, Performance Lab® Prebiotic may assist with long-term gut health and potentially improving cognitive wellbeing via the gut-brain axis.

A bottle of Performance Lab Energy

To get the best deal on Performance Lab® Prebiotic, click here.

References

  1. David DR et al. Changes in USDA food composition data for 43 garden crops, 1950 to 1999. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec; 23(6): 669-82.
  2. Calton JB. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010; 7: 24.
  3. Grima NA et al. The effects of multivitamins on cognitive performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012; 29(3): 561-9.
  4. Hercberg S. The SU.VI.MAX study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trail on the effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals on health. Ann Pharm Fr. 2006 Nov; 64(6): 397-401.
  5. Kesse-Guyot E et al. French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep; 94(3): 892-9.
  6. Kennedy DO et al. Multivitamins and minerals modulate whole-body energy metabolism and cerebral blood-flow during cognitive task performance: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016; 13: 11.
  7. Jongkees BJ et al. Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands—A review. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Nov; 70: 50-7.
  8. Parra M et al. Vitamin B6 and Its Role in Cell Metabolism and Physiology. Cells. 2018 Jul; 7(7): 84.
  9. Silveri MM et al. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. 2008 Nov; 21(10): 1066-75.
  10. Hee-Yong K et al. Phosphatidylserine in the Brain: Metabolism and Function. Prog Lipid Res. 2014 Oct; 0: 1-18.