The best nootropics this year can do more for brainpower than you might think.
Also known as cognitive enhancers, smart pills and brain supplements, nootropics – whether taken in stack combinations or alone – are now more effective than ever, thanks to recent nootropic advancements.
However, it can be hard to figure out which nootropics are the best.
This guide discusses the nootropic features, forms and combinations to look for in brain supplements, and how the best nootropics stack may deliver everything you need for mental performance in one formula.
What Makes The Best Nootropic Supplement
Do any nootropics actually work?
The answeris yes, lots of natural nootropics actually work. You just need to be able to tell the difference between cheap, unproven, ineffective brain pills and truly effective natural nootropic supplements designed by professionals based on clinical evidence.
A good nootropic might help with memory, attention, learning or some other aspect of cognition.
Better nootropics support the brain in many different ways, enhancing several cognitive functions at the same time.
The best nootropic supplement will do more – using intelligent formulation strategies that combine multitasking nootropics to unlock the brain's full potential: Peak mental performance that fires on all cylinders.
In addition, the best nootropic supplement must be safe and side effect-free, boosting brainpower while building brain health.
To become the best, a nootropic brain supplement must be made with careful attention to detail and flawless execution – especially when it comes to nootropic research, quality and combinations.
Experience 100% Brainpower™
Mind Lab Pro® is the world's cleanest and most effective brain supplement.
- Focus, clarity, speed of thought
- 100% safe, clean, plant-based
- Enhances work, study and play
Ultimately, to be the best a nootropic supplement must be safe and work. We can get an idea if a brain supplement might work by looking at the research behind its ingredients.
Some top nootropics are supported by well-designed human clinical studies demonstrating their brainpower benefits.
Brain supplements may also include human, animal and in vitro research-backed nootropics that support the healthy brain functions that drive peak mental performance: Brain energy, neurotransmission, brain regeneration, cerebral circulation and others.
The best brain supplements will only formulate with research-backed nootropics that are shown to be safe and effective.
Quality helps the best research-backed nootropics to work even better. Quality features seen in the best nootropic supplements include:
- Enhanced Absorption - Nootropics can only work if they are absorbed. Some high-quality nootropic forms are easier to absorb than others.
- High Potency- Some advanced and branded nootropic forms are enhanced to supply more brain-boosting activity per milligram.
- Clean Delivery - Artificial fillers, colors and preservatives may be linked to negative side effects. Quality nootropics keep it clean.
The best nootropic supplements prioritize quality for safety, tolerability and superior brainpower results.
Combining different nootropics, also known as stacking, may produce better results than when the nootropics are taken alone.
The best nootropic supplements (as well as the best DIY stacks from biohackers on Reddit and the like) will use intelligent stacking strategies, including:
- Combining nootropics that have synergy - some nootropics may work hand-in-hand to amplify each other’s beneficial brain activities.
- Multi-pathway nootropics - using several nootropics to address one aspect of cognition; or using one nootropic with several brain benefits.
- Optimizing overall brain health - Enhancing brain’s structure for healthy function may improve cognition in diverse ways.
Smart stacking strategies and the right nootropic combinations unlock the best possible brain supplement benefits.
Top Nootropics Ingredients
How do nootropics work exactly?
The best brain supplements work by enhancing multiple different aspects of brain function at once: focus, memory, clarity, mental energy, mood, motivation - all of it! To achieve this, top nootropic supplements will usually combine several of the most effective nootropic ingredients known to enhance cognitive function.
So now that we know what makes a brain supplement the best, it's worth asking what specific natural ingredients we should look for in a top quality nootropic.
Let's take a closer look at some of the best nootropic substances you'll find in brain supplements today, as well as the best-quality forms that maximize their benefits.
Citicoline is the best nootropic for energy and best overall nootropic for brain health and peak cognitive performance.
Citicoline may be most well-known as a clean and effective mental energizer. It powers up the brain on a cellular level – within brain cells' powerhouse mitochondria – to enhance alertness without the "crash" of stimulants.
- One human research study found that Citicoline may boost brain energy production by 13.6% and accelerate brain cell formation by 26%1
With additional roles in supporting the brain chemical acetylcholine, protecting brain structure, enhancing blood flow to the brain and more, Citicoline works in many ways to boost many aspects of brainpower – making it the best nootropic overall.
In terms of mental performance benefits, researchers have suggested that Citicoline may help with:
- Overall cognitive function.2
- Attention and reaction time.3
- Memory performance.4
- Verbal learning performance.5
- Age-related cognitive and mental performance decline.6
Human research suggests Citicoline (as Cognizin®) may improve cognitive performance related to attention.
In this study, subjects took 250 mg Cognizin®, 500 mg Cognizin®, or placebo every day for 28 days, and then took cognitive performance tests. Both doses of Cognizin® were linked to higher test scores, with 500 mg demonstrating greater benefit. Researchers concluded Citicoline may enhance cognitive function and attentional performance.7
In addition to boosting performance-driven brain functions, Citicoline nourishes brain regeneration – so it also helps with long-range brain health and clarity.
Best Citicoline for Nootropic Supplements: Cognizin®
- Cognizin® is premium-quality, 99%+ pure Citicoline
- Naturally made with a patented fermentation process
- Backed by gold-standard human clinical research trials
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is the best nootropic for memory, with additional anti-stress effects that may help with competitive cognitive performance.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid (healthy fat) nootropic used in brain cell genesis, repair and maintenance. It is especially important for brain cell membranes and nerve-protective myelin. PS has additional roles in brain chemicals and brain cell energy metabolism.
PS enhances several cognitive functions, with its greatest nootropic potential in the area of memory.
Researchers have suggested PS promotes the formation and storage of short-term memories, consolidation of long-term memories, and memory retrieval (also known as recall).8
Additional mental performance benefits linked to PS supplementation include:
- Stress reduction and mood balance.9
- Improving cognition in mild age-related cognitive impairment.10
- Increasing sports-oriented cognitive functions.11
- Delayed recall memory enhancement in elderly subjects.12
Best PS for Nootropic Supplements: Sharp-PS® Green
- Sharp-PS® Green is premium PS made from non-GMO sunflower lecithin
- Some PS is soy-derived; Sharp-PS® Green is a 100% soy-free PS source
- Patented, eco-friendly process that produces clean vegan Sharp-PS® Green
Bacopa Monnieri is the best nootropic for learners, with unique brainpower benefits for knowledge mastery, memory performance and cognition under stress.
This traditional Ayurvedic herb supplies active nootropic bacosides, which regulate brain chemicals and brain circulation while supplying brain-protective antioxidant activity.
Bacopa Monnieri's versatile brain benefits deliver some of the best cognitive effects for students and learners, but may help anyone seeking a sharp mental performance edge.
Researchers have suggested that Bacopa Monnieri may help:
- Slow the rate at which we forget newly acquired information.13
- Significantly improve memory acquisition and retention in older adults.14
- Supply neuroprotective activities that may be therapeutic in memory loss.15
- Activate the brain for clear thinking under stress (animal research).16
Human research shows Bacopa Monnieri at 24% bacosides/9 bioactives may enhance learning, immediate recall and delayed recall memory
In a study that included 81 healthy Australians over the age of 55, Bacopa Monnieri supplementation for 12 weeks appeared to significantly improve verbal learning, memory acquisition, and delayed recall.14
In another study, researchers linked Bacopa Monnieri supplements to significant improvements in delayed recall memory. In weeks 0-12, a 36.5% improvement was noted with Bacopa supplementation. Over the study's 24-week duration, a 78% improvement in delayed recall was noted with Bacopa.17
Bacopa Monnieri is one of the best nootropics because it is associated with so many different performance-oriented brainpower benefits. In addition to learning, it supports short-term mental performance, long-range healthy brain function, and stress resistance in all age groups.
Best Bacopa Monnieri for Brain Supplements: Standardized for 24% Bacosides, Calibrated to 9 Bioactives
- 24% potency of active nootropic bacosides ensures consistent activity
- Advanced HPLC-analysis ensures 9 bioactive bacoside nootropics are present
- Precisely calibrated botanical extract for more reliable Bacopa brain benefits
Lion’s Mane Mushroom
Lion’s Mane Mushroom is the best nootropic for Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).18 Healthy NGF levels in turn support several cognition-enhancing brain functions.
Lion's Mane Mushroom is among the best nootropics is because its NGF-boosting bioactivity is rare, but highly significant for brain health and mental performance:
- Healthy NGF levels support a range of brain bioactivities including plasticity, brain regeneration, cell-to-cell signaling and more
- Suboptimal NGF levels have been linked to blue moods, poor memory issues and cognitive decline
Researchers have suggested Lion's Mane Mushroom's brain-healthy NGF support may boost brainpower by:
- Increasing cognitive performance scores in older adults with mild age-related cognitive issues.19
- Potentially helping to balance mood and ease anxiety.20
Lion's Mane Mushroom (Yamabushitake) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance in human research.
In one clinical trial, subjects took Lion’s Mane Mushroom or placebo three times a day for 16 weeks. Researchers found that the Lion’s Mane supplementation was associated with enhanced cognitive performance scores, and that cognitive testing scores dropped four weeks after supplementation stopped.19
Best Lion's Mane for Nootropic Supplements: Full Spectrum Extract
- Full spectrum extract supplies all the mushroom's constituents
- Includes Lion's Mane nootropic actives: hericenones and erinacines.
Maritime Pine Bark Extract
Maritime Pine Bark Extract is the best antioxidant nootropic because it combines potent brain anti-aging activity with natural support for brain blood flow and brain regeneration.
Antioxidants fight cell aging, including within the brain. Antioxidants work by neutralizing the cell-damaging, age-accelerating effects of toxic free radicals.
Maritime Pine Bark Extract is a strong antioxidant substance because it:
- Supplies dozens of brain-protective flavonoid antioxidants in one complex.
- Pine bark antioxidants are suggested to be 50X stronger than vitamin C.
- One of the few antioxidants that can cross the blood brain barrier.
Maritime Pine Bark Extract emerges as the best nootropic antioxidant because it does far more than protect the brain.
The flavonoid antioxidants that are found in Maritime Pine Bark also:
- Stimulate Nitric Oxide, which promotes blood flow to the brain.21
- Help raise levels of BDNF, a growth factor for brain regeneration.22
Researchers have linked flavonoids’ brain-regenerative and anti-aging bioactivities to improvements in memory, learning and overall mental function, as well as a potential reversal of age-related cognitive decline.23
Best Maritime Pine Bark for Nootropic Supplements: 95% proanthocyanidins
- Standardized to supply a minimum of 95% active proanthocyanidins
- Also called flavonoids or OPCs, proanthocyanidins are Maritime Pine Bark's nootropic antioxidants
- 95% active proanthocyanidins is the strongest available potency of Maritime Pine Bark’s nootropic actives
L-Tyrosine is the best nootropic for achieving peak mental performance and clarity in challenging, pressure-filled situations – and then supporting mental recovery afterwards.
L-Tyrosine is an amino acid used to make brain chemicals involved in memory, mood and mental processing, including dopamine and norepinephrine.
Stress, multitasking and other intense cognitive functions deplete these performance-oriented brain chemicals, which may lead to brain fog and attention problems.
By maintaining stress-depleted brain chemicals, L-Tyrosine appears to enhance cognitive performance in stressful, distracting and demanding scenarios.
L-Tyrosine's brainpower benefits and support for mental recovery easily rank it among the best nootropics for excelling in the modern age. Researchers have suggested L-Tyrosine improves:
- Working memory and learning speed during cold water immersion.24
- Mental performance during loud 90 decibel noise exposure.25
- Short-term memory during demanding multitasking activities.26
- Cognitive performance and mood during sleep deprivation.27
Best L-Tyrosine for Nootropic Supplements: N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT)
- NALT is the preferred Tyrosine form for brain supplements
- May have bioavailability advantages over plain L-Tyrosine
L-Theanine's rare Alpha brain wave-boosting activity makes it the best nootropic for relaxed-yet-alert mental clarity, with additional support for sleep and long-range brain health.
A soothing amino acid nootropic from green tea, L-Theanine raises activity of Alpha brainwaves.28 By tuning the brain to an Alpha frequency (8-14 Hz) , it helps produce feelings of wakeful relaxation, mood enhancement, creative thinking and calm mental clarity.
Researchers have suggested that L-Theanine's nootropic benefits include:
- Activating and enhancing the brain's attention circuitry.29
- Reducing stress during demanding multitasking tasks.30
- Enhancing age-related cognitive performance and protecting the brain31
- Improving performance on math tasks in a stressful environment.32
- Helping to reduce the side effects of caffeine, for alertness without jitters.33
Best L-Theanine for Nootropic Supplements: Suntheanine®
- Premium Suntheanine® is 100% pure L-isomer form of theanine
- Patented fermentation process mirrors green tea’s profile
- Protected by 40+ U.S. and international patents (as of 2019-2020)
- Suntheanine® is shown in human research to raise Alpha brainwaves
Rhodiola Rosea is the best nootropic for mind-body performance. It helps strengthen mental fortitude against stress, supporting mental energy, physical intensity, mood, work capacity and more.
Rhodiola Rosea is one of the best nootropics and a must-have in performance-oriented brain supplements. Rhodiola Rosea is powerful brain-booster that works in a unique way:
- Rhodiola Rosea modulates stress hormones to strengthen mental (and physical) resistance to stress.35
Rhodiola's anti-stress and brain support promotes far reaching brainpower benefits, including an anti-fatigue effect that improves concentration ability, decreases stress responses and helps with peak mental performance.
Researchers have suggested Rhodiola Rosea:
- Enhances mental and physical performance.36
- Promotes a significant anti-fatigue effect.37
- Supports mental energy and neuro-motoric testing scores.38
- Reduces mental fatigue in stressful settings.39
- Supports a bright, balanced mood.40
Rhodiola Rosea has been linked to dose-dependent mental energy benefits in human clinical research.
In a human clinical study investigating Rhodiola Rosea's impact on mental work capacity during stress and fatigue, researchers reported that rhodiola group study subjects showed a pronounced antifatigue effect.37
Best Rhodiola for Nootropic Supplements: 3% rosavins, 1% salidrosides.
- Standardized for a minimum of 3% rosavins and 1% salidrosides.
- Strongest potency of Rhodiola rosea nootropic bioactives available.
- Enhanced-potency form of a traditional herbal performance booster.
Vitamins B6, B9, B12
B-Vitamins get a special nootropic mention because they are among the best essential nutrients for brain health, but not everybody gets enough. While the B-Complex as a whole is believed to support brain health, three Bs in particular are noted for their nootropic activity:
Vitamin B6 is one of the best nootropics to look for in brain supplements because it regulates synthesis and conversion of neurotransmitters involved in healthy cognition, mood and memory performance.
Researchers have suggested that Vitamin B6 may:
- Significantly improve the brain's storage of information.41
- Help form myelin sheaths throughout the nervous system.
- Support brain chemicals associated with a bright, healthy mood.42
Vitamin B9 is among the best nootropic supplements because it helps balance homocysteine levels, thereby optimizing blood flow to the brain and production of cognition-critical brain chemicals.
High homocysteine levels correlate to low B9 intake. Both are linked to cognitive decline and unhealthy changes to brain structure.43
- Vitamin B9 supplementation has been shown to increase blood B9 levels by 576%, reduce homocysteine by 26%, and significantly improve memory and information processing speed.44
B9 also plays a role in the synthesis of the brain chemicals serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine.45
Vitamin B12 is an important essential nutrient for the nervous system, including the brain. It supports brain cell energy metabolism and the formation of healthy, protective nerve sheaths.46
Low levels of B12 are associated with cognitive decline and mental imbalance.
Researchers have suggested that as a nootropic, Vitamin B12 may help to
- Maintain brain size against age-related shrinkage.47
- Reverse age-related cognitive decline in some older adults.48
- Support healthy blood flow to the brain.49
Vitamins B6, B9 and B12 are the best essential foundation nootropics for overall brain health.
The B-Complex Vitamins are good for general brain and nervous system health. Vitamins B6, B9 and B12 stand out as the best, performing a range of brain-supportive and nootropic activities. Most B-complex brain research and reviews focuses on these three B-vitamins.
When stacked together Vitamins B6, B9 and B12 unlock another benefit that makes them three of the best nootropics for long-range brain health: They help to regulate homocysteine levels.
High homocysteine is a strong modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline because it may interfere with healthy blood flow to the brain.
Vitamins B9, B6 and B12 for Healthy Blood Flow to the Brain
Vitamins B6, B9 and B12 are all involved in homocysteine metabolism, which in turn supports healthy cerebral circulation and brain chemicals:
The best nootropic supplements may include Vitamins B6, B9 and B12 to help regulate homocysteine, thereby supporting brain chemical conversion and healthy blood flow to the brain.
In a meta-analysis review of 12 human clinical trials including over 1,100 study subjects, researchers suggested that B-vitamin supplements help with homocysteine metabolism:50
- Supplementation with .5 mg of Vitamin B9 appears to be associated with a 25% reduction in blood homocysteine concentrations;
- Adding .5 mcg of Vitamin B12 to the regimen was associated with an additional 7% reduction in blood homocysteine levels.
Best B-Vitamins for Brain Supplements: NutriGenesis® nature-identical.
- NutriGenesis® nootropic B-Vitamins are lab-grown via dual-organism cultivation in a state of the art laboratory.
- Complexed with absorption-enhancing cofactors like amino acids, prebiotics, enzymes and fiber.
- The body recognizes, absorbs and utilizes nature-identical NutriGenesis® B-Vitamins efficiently, amplifying their nootropic benefits.
- Patented NutriGenesis® process yields the cleanest, safest, most eco-friendly B-Vitamins available.
Best Pre-Made Nootropic Stack to Boost Your Brain Function
What happens when you combine 11 of the best nootropics, which collectively have the biggest impact on overall brain health, into one supplement?
You get the best possible result: 100% Brainpower™.
Mind Lab Pro® - the Universal Nootropic™
Mind Lab Pro®'s Universal Nootropic™ design selects the best nootropics from a long list of possibilities – only choosing those that have multitasking benefits for multiple aspects of cognitive function and brain health.
With this approach, Mind Lab Pro® goes far beyond synthetic smart drugs, one-dimensional memory pills, basic smart pills and typical brain supplement products.
When combined, Mind Lab Pro® nootropics provide full-spectrum brain support to optimize the whole brain and enhance all types of thinking:
Mind Lab Pro® Combinations
In addition to its ultimate 100% Brainpower benefit Mind Lab Pro® employs a stacks within stacks strategy to promote flexible brainpower and versatile brain health support, for specific brain concerns and cognitive scenarios:
Crash-Free Mental Energy
Together in Mind Lab Pro®, Rhodiola Rosea, Citicoline and Vitamin B12 combine to promote mental energy in separate, complementary ways.
- Rhodiola Rosea - natural psychostimulant helps ease mental fatigue.
- Citicoline - optimizes brain cells' energy-producing mitochondria.
- Vitamin B12 - essential nutrient for brain energy metabolism.
Both Rhodiola and Citicoline have been noted to achieve their brain-energizing effects without the crash or side effects of caffeine or other typical energizers.
Mind Lab Pro® supports creation and repair of brain cells with a smart nootropic stack that works across four unique pathways:
- Citicoline - powers and accelerates new brain cell formation.
- Phosphatidylserine (PS) - nourishes brain regeneration with building blocks.
- Lion's Mane Mushroom - promotes nerve growth factor (NGF).
- Maritime Pine Bark - promotes brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
Together in Mind Lab Pro, these nootropics supply the raw materials, energy and growth factors that all contribute to healthy brain regeneration.
Together in Mind Lab Pro®, the nootropics PS and Rhodiola combine to support the healthy stress responses and mental clarity that help contribute to peak performance during athletic competition.
- Phosphatidylserine (PS) - stress benefits suggested to improve golf performance and endurance training.
- Rhodiola Rosea - supports stress resistance, focus, athletic performance and exercise adaptation.
- Bacopa Monnieri - anti-stress, memory and learning benefits for strategy and gameday performance.
Mind Lab Pro®'s mini-stack for sports cognition supplies effective brain boosters to help you gain a safe, legal competitive edge.
High-performance thinking depletes brain chemicals needed for mental clarity. Mind Lab Pro® may help with:
- N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine helps the brain recover by supporting synthesis of stress-depleted brain chemicals.
- L-Theanine promotes relaxation and healthy sleep, which in turn supports efficient brain repair and recovery.
Mind Lab Pro® takes care to not only boost brainpower, but support mental recovery and overall brain health along the way.
Cognition Under Pressure
Together in Mind Lab Pro®, N-Acteyl L-Tyrosine and Rhodiola rosea supply complementary support for superior cognitive function under demanding, distracting and stressful scenarios.
- N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine - brain-boosting activity may deliver better benefits during high-intensity cognitive tasks than relaxed cognitive tasks.
- Rhodiola Rosea - adaptogen activity helps regulate stress responses to maintain clear, fast mental processing during pressure-filled situations.
This Mind Lab Pro®'s mini-stack forms a powerful nootropic duo for dynamic, competitive and high-performance individuals.
Vitamin B6 and L-Theanine supply complementary support for a positive, balanced mental state – raising Alpha brainwaves for immediate mood support and optimizing brain chemical synthesis and conversion for long-range emotional balance.
- Vitamin B6 - needed to synthesize brain chemicals for mood balance.
- L-Theanine - supports a bright, relaxed mood via Alpha brain wave activity.
Together in Mind Lab Pro®, these two nootropics help to support mood via separate complementary brain pathways.
Bacopa, PS and Lion's Mane may help learners to encode and recall valuable knowledge in the short term, as well as supporting the ability to draw upon that stored knowledge for years to come.
- Bacopa Monnieri - improves learning rate while sustaining the retention of newly acquired information.
- Phosphatidylserine (PS) - best nootropic supplement for long-term memory and recall.
- Lion's Mane Mushroom - supports brain plasticity that underlies new learning.
Together in Mind Lab Pro®, this mini-stack can help students and learners of all ages to retain and recall new knowledge.
The above represent just a few of the mini-stacks in Mind Lab Pro® that make it the best nootropic brain supplement on the market.
Mind Lab Pro® Offers Quality Ingredients and Standards
All 11 ingredients in the Mind Lab Pro® formula are among the best nootropics.
Mind Lab Pro®'s superior quality standards help these nootropics to work better.
Only the Best Quality Nootropic Forms
Mind Lab Pro® supplies enhanced, advanced forms of the best research-backed nootropics, all in clinical-range dosages that support the greatest possible brainpower results:
By using the best available form of each nootropic, the Mind Lab Pro® formula achieves maximum brain-boosting activity.
Mind Lab Pro® Other Ingredients and Allergen Warnings show why it is the cleanest, safest and best nootropic formula on the market.
NutriCaps® Capsules and Clean Label
To truly be the best, a nootropic supplement's delivery form and "other ingredients" must reflect a philosophy of clean quality – for the best results, fewest discouraging side effects, and greatest overall safety profile.
Another big reason Mind Lab Pro® is the best brain supplement ever developed: Its careful ingredient selections and advanced design are matched with the cleanest, highest-quality nootropic label on the market.
Mind Lab Pro® is made with:
- No artificial colors, no preservatives, no GMO, no gluten, no caffeine or stimulants, no soy and no synthetic additives.
- Premium vegan NutriCaps®: Clean, clear pullulan naturally fermented from tapioca; no unsafe or synthetic capsule ingredients.
- 100% BPA-free bottles, taking another quality step to reduce another potential source of sensitivities or risks.
- Silveri MM et al. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy.NMR Biomed. 2008; 21(10):1066-75.
- McGlade E. et al., Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2012;3:769-773.
- Yurgelun-Todd D et al. The Effect of Citicoline Supplementation on Motor Speed and Attention in Adolescent Males. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2015; 1557-1246.
- Alvarez XA, et al. Citicoline Improves Memory Performance in Elderly Subjects. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology. 19(3):201-10,1997.
- Babb SM, Wald LL, Cohen BM, Villafuerte RA, Gruber SA, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Renshaw PF. Chronic citicoline increases phosphodiesters in the brains of healthy older subjects: an in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Psychopharmacology. 2002;161 (3):248–254.
- Putignano S, et al. Retrospective and observational study to assess the efficacy of citicoline in elderly patients suffering from stupor related to complex geriatric syndrome. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:113-8.
- Glade MJ, Smith K. Phosphatidylserine and the human brain. Nutrition. 2015 Jun;31(6):781-786.
- Benton D1, Donohoe RT, Sillance B, Nabb S. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(3):169-78.
- Crook T, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in alzheimers disease psychopharmacolbull 1992 28 1:61-6
- Jäger R, et al. Phospholipids and sports performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007; 4: 5.
- Crook TH, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology. 1991 May;41(5):644-9
- Kato-Kataoka A, et al. Soybean-Derived Phosphatidylserine Improves Memory Function of the Elderly Japanese Subjects with Memory Complaints. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010 Nov; 47(3): 246–255.
- Roodenrys S, et al. Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri) on human memory. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Aug;27(2):279-81
- Morgan A1, Stevens J. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0342.
- Shinomol GK, et al. Exploring the role of "Brahmi" (Bocopa monnieri and Centella asiatica) in brain function and therapy. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2011 Jan;5(1):33-49.
- Bhattacharya SK, Ghosal S. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera—an experimental study. Phytomedicine1998;5:77-82.
- Barbhaiyaet al., J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2008, 3: 425-434
- Mori K, et al. Nerve growth factor-inducing activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Sep;31(9):1727-32.
- Mori K, et al. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):367-72. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2634.
- Mayumi N, Shimizu K, Kondo R, Hayashi C, Sato D, Kitagawa K, & Ohnuki K 2010, Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomedical Research. 31(4): 231-237.
- Schmitt CA, Dirsch VM. Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide by plant-derived products. Nitric Oxide. 2009 Sep;21(2):77-91.
- David Vauzour, et al. The neuroprotective potential of flavonoids: a multiplicity of effects. Genes Nutr. 2008 Dec; 3(3-4): 115–126.
- Spencer JPE, Vauzour D, Rendeiro C. Flavonoids and cognition: The molecular mechanisms underlying their behavioural effects. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Volume 492, Issues 1–2, December 2009, Pages 1-9
- Mahoney CR, et al. Tyrosine supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold exposure. Physiol Behav. 2007 Nov 23;92(4):575-82. Epub 2007 May 22
- Deijen JB1, Orlebeke JF.Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Res Bull. 1994;33(3):319-23
- Thomas JR, et al.Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Nov;64(3):495-500.
- Neri DF, et al.The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Apr;66(4):313-9.
- Manuel Gomez-Ramirez, et al. The Effects of L-theanine on Alpha-Band Oscillatory Brain Activity During a Visuo-Spatial Attention Task. Brain Topogr (2009) 22:44–51
- Gomez-Ramirez M, et al.The deployment of intersensory selective attention: a high-density electrical mapping study of the effects of theanine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jan-Feb;30(1):25-38
- White D, et al. Anti-Stress, Behavioural and Magnetoencephalography Effects of an l-Theanine-Based Nutrient Drink: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial. Nutrients. 2016 Jan; 8(1): 53.
- Kakuda T. Neuroprotective effects of theanine and its preventive effects on cognitive dysfunction.Pharmacol Res. 2011 Aug;64(2):162-8.
- Kimura K. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45
- Dodd, F. L. et al. “A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Effects of Caffeine and L-Theanine Both Alone and in Combination on Cerebral Blood Flow, Cognition and Mood.”Psychopharmacology 14 (2015): 2563–2576. PMC. Web. 1 Oct. 2016.
- Lyon MR, et al. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):348-54.
- Panossian A, Wagner H. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration.Phytother Res. 2005;19(10):819–38.
- Hung SK, Perry R, Ernst E. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):235-44. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.014. Epub 2010 Oct 30.
- Shevtsov VA, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):95-105.
- Spasov AA, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine. 2000 Apr;7(2):85-9.
- Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, et al. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue – a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine 2000;7:365-371.
- Darbinyan V, Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, Gabrielyan E, Malstrom C, Panossian A. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression.Nord J Psychiatry. 2007; 61(5):343-348.
- Deijen JB, van der Beek EJ, Orlebeke JF, van den Berg H. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort.Psychopharmacology. 1992;109(4):489–496.
- McCarty MF. High-dose pyridoxine as an ‘anti-stress’ strategy. Med Hypotheses. 2000 May;54(5):803-7
- Smith AD, Refsum H. Homocysteine, B Vitamins, and Cognitive Impairment. Annu Rev Nutr. 2016 Jul 17;36:211-39
- Durga J, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 20;369(9557):208-16.
- Leahy LG. Vitamin B Supplementation: What's the Right Choice for Your Patients? J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2017 Jul 1;55(7):7-11.
- Neurology 2008, 71(11):826-832. Moore E, et al. (2012). Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review. Int Psychogeriatr, 24:541–556.
- Vogiatzoglou A, et al. Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly.
- Clarke R, Birks J, Nexo E, Ueland PM, Schneede J, Scott J, et al. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1384-91
- Toohey JI: Vitamin B12 and methionine synthesis: A critical review. Is nature’s most beautiful cofactor misunderstood? BioFactors 2006, 26(1):45-57.
- Homocysteine Lowering Trialists’ Collaboration. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 1998 Mar 21; 316(7135): 894–898.